27. Vasalasuttaṁ PPV: Aggikabhāradvājasuttaṁ.01
The Discourse on the Outcastes

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Evaṁ me sutaṁ:
Thus I have heard:

ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati
at one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthī

Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
at Anāthapiṇḍika's grounds in Jeta's Wood.

Atha kho Bhagavā pubbanhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā,
Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time,

pattacīvaram-ādāya Sāvatthiyaṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi.
after picking up his bowl and robe, entered Sāvatthī for alms.

Tena kho pana samayena Aggikabhāradvājassa brāhmaṇassa
Then at that time in the brahmin Aggikabhāradvāja's

nivesane aggi pajjalito hoti āhuti paggahitā. PPV: paggahītā.02
residence the (sacrificial) fire was burning, and the offering had been taken up.

Atha kho Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ sapadānaṁ piṇḍāya caramāno,
Then, as the Gracious One was going from house to house for alms in Sāvatthī,

yena Aggikabhāradvājassa brāhmaṇassa nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkami.
he approached the brahmin Aggikabhāradvāja's residence.

Addasā kho Aggikabhāradvājo brāhmaṇo
The brahmin Aggikabhāradvāja saw

Bhagavantaṁ dūrato va PPV: ca.03 āgacchantaṁ,
the Gracious One coming from afar,

disvāna Bhagavantaṁ etad-avoca:
and having seen him, he said this to the Gracious One:

“Tatreva muṇḍaka! Tatreva samaṇaka!
“Right there, shaveling! Right there, little ascetic!

Tatreva vasalaka! Tiṭṭhāhī!”ti.
Right there, outcaste! Halt!”

Evaṁ vutte Bhagavā Aggikabhāradvājaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ etad-avoca:
After this was said, the Gracious One said this to the brahmin Aggikabhāradvāja:

“Jānāsi pana tvaṁ brāhmaṇa
“But do you know, brahmin,

vasalaṁ vā vasalakaraṇe vā dhamme?” ti
what an outcaste is, or what things make one an outcaste?”

“Na khvāhaṁ bho Gotama jānāmi,
“I certainly do not know, reverend Gotama,

vasalaṁ vā vasalakaraṇe vā dhamme.
what an outcaste is, or what things make one an outcaste.

Sādhu me bhavaṁ Gotamo tathā Dhammaṁ desetu
It would be good for me if the reverend Gotama would preach the Dhamma

yathāhaṁ jāneyyaṁ vasalaṁ vā vasalakaraṇe vā dhamme” ti.
so that I may know what an outcaste is, and what things make one an outcaste.”

“Tena hi brāhmaṇa suṇāhi, sādhukaṁ manasikarohi bhāsissāmī” ti.
“Then listen, brahmin, apply your mind well, and I will speak.”

“Evaṁ bho,” ti kho Aggikabhāradvājo brāhmaṇo
“Yes, reverend,” the brahmin Aggikabhāradvāja

Bhagavato paccassosi, Bhagavā etad-avoca:
replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

 

“Kodhano upanāhī ca, pāpamakkhī ca yo naro,
“That man who is angry, who has enmity, is bad, and insolent,

vipannadiṭṭhi māyāvī, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [01]
who has wrong views, and is deceitful, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Ekajaṁ vā dvijaṁ vā pi yodha pāṇāni hiṁsati,
Whether once born, or twice born, he who is violent to creatures here,

yassa pāṇe dayā natthi, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [02]
who has no sympathy with creatures, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo hanti parirundhati gāmāni nigamāni ca,
He who beseiges and destroys villages and market towns,

niggāhako samaññāto, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [03]
who is well known as an oppressor, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Gāme vā yadi vāraññe, yaṁ paresaṁ mamāyitaṁ,
o (He who), whether in the village or the wilderness, takes by theft what is not given,

theyyā adinnaṁ ādiyati, CBhp: theyyaṁ adinnam-ādeti.04 taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [04]
those things loved by others, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo have iṇam-ādāya, cujjamāno palāyati,
He who has taken on a debt, and when pressed (to pay it) runs away,

“Na hi te iṇam-atthī” ti, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [05]
saying: “There is no debt due to you,” he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo ve kiñcikkhakamyatā, panthasmiṁ vajataṁ janaṁ,
o He who desiring a trifle, after slaying a person going

hantvā kiñcikkham-ādeti, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [06]
along the path, takes that trifle, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo attahetu parahetu dhanahetu ca yo naro,
That man who, for his own sake, for the sake of others, or for wealth,

sakkhipuṭṭho musā brūti, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [07]
when asked to bear witness, speaks falsely, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo ñātīnaṁ sakhānaṁ vā dāresu patidissati,
He who is seen (misbehaving) with the wives of friends or relatives,

sahasā sampiyena vā, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [08]
whether forcibly, or with consent, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo mātaraṁ vā pitaraṁ vā jiṇṇakaṁ gatayobbanaṁ,
He who, when his mother or father has grown old, with their youth gone,

pahusanto CBhp, PPV2: pahūsanto.05 na bharati, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [09]
though having much, does not support them, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo mātaraṁ vā pitaraṁ vā, bhātaraṁ CBhp: bhataraṁ.06 bhaginiṁ sasuṁ
o He who strikes, or annoys with words, his mother or father,

hanti roseti vācāya, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [10]
brother or sister, or mother-in-law, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo atthaṁ pucchito santo, anattham-anusāsati,
He who, when he is asked what is good, teaches that which is not good,

paṭicchannena manteti, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [11]
who conceals things when he gives advice, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo katvā pāpakaṁ kammaṁ, “Mā maṁ jaññā” ti icchati,
He who, having done a bad deed, longs thus: “May they not know about me,”

Yo paṭicchannakammanto, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [12]
he who conceals what he is doing, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo ve parakulaṁ gantvā, bhutvāna sucibhojanaṁ,
He who, having gone to another's family, and eaten good food,

āgataṁ na paṭipūjeti, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [13]
does not return the honour when (his benefactor) comes, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo brāhmaṇaṁ vā samaṇaṁ vā, aññaṁ vā pi vaṇibbakaṁ
o He who deceives a brahmin, or an ascetic, or another mendicant

musāvādena vañceti, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [14]
with words that are false, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo brāhmaṇaṁ vā samaṇaṁ vā, bhattakāle upaṭṭhite,
o He who annoys with words a brahmin, or an ascetic, when mealtime is at hand,

roseti vācā na ca deti, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [15]
and does not give (him food), he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Asataṁ yodha pabrūti, mohena paḷiguṇṭhito,
He who speaks to those who are bad here, being entangled by delusion,

kiñcikkhaṁ nijigiṁsāno, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [16]
(because of) coveting a trifle, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo cattānaṁ samukkaṁse, parañ-ca-m-avajānati,
He who (speaks and) extols himself, and yet despises another,

nihīno sena mānena, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [17]
who is debased through his own conceit, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Rosako, kadariyo ca pāpiccho, maccharī, saṭho,
(He who) is annoying, stingy, who has bad longings, is selfish, crafty,

ahiriko, anottāpī, PPV2: anottappī.07 taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [18]
unconscientious, and shameless, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo Buddhaṁ paribhāsati, atha vā tassa sāvakaṁ,
He who abuses a Buddha, or else one of his disciples,

paribbājaṁ gahaṭṭhaṁ vā, taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. [19]
a wanderer, or a householder, he one should know as an outcaste.

 

Yo ve anarahā santo Arahaṁ paṭijānati,
He who, not being a Worthy One claims that he is a Worthy One,

coro sabrahmake loke, esa kho vasalādhamo.
is a thief in the world with its brahmās, he is the worst of the outcastes.

Ete kho vasalā vuttā, mayā vo ye pakāsitā. [20]
These, indeed, are said to be outcastes, those whom I have explained to you.

 

Na jaccā vasalo hoti, na jaccā hoti brāhmaṇo,
One is not an outcaste by birth, by birth one is not a brahmin,

kammanā vasalo hoti kammanā hoti brāhmaṇo. [21]
by deeds one becomes an outcaste, one becomes a brahmin by deeds.

 

Tad-aminā pi jānātha, MPP, PPV: pi vijānātha.08 yathā medaṁ nidassanaṁ:
You can know it also by this, as I (give you) this example:

caṇḍālaputto Sopāko Mātaṅgo iti vissuto. [22]
Sopaka, an untouchable's son, was renowned as Mātaṅga.

So yasaṁ paramaṁ patto, Mātaṅgoyaṁ sudullabhaṁ,
This Mātaṅga attained the highest repute, which was very hard to obtain,

āgañchuṁ tassupaṭṭhānaṁ khattiyā brāhmaṇā bahū. [23]
and many nobles and brahmins came to attend on him.

So devayānam-āruyha, virajaṁ so mahāpathaṁ,
He ascended the way going to the gods, that dust-free great path,

kāmarāgaṁ virājetvā, brahmalokūpago ahu. [24]
and having put away sensual desire, he went to the brahma worlds.

Na naṁ jāti nivāresi brahmalokūpapattiyā.
Birth did not prevent him from being reborn in the brahma worlds.

Ajjhāyakakule jātā, brāhmaṇā mantabandhuno,
Brahmins, though born in a family of scholars, and acquainted with the lore,

te ca pāpesu kammesu abhiṇham-upadissare. [25]
are continuously to be seen (doing) deeds that are bad.

Diṭṭheva dhamme gārayhā samparāye ca duggatiṁ. CBhp: duggatī.09
Reproachable in this life, in the next life they have an unhappy destiny.

Na te jāti nivāreti duggaccā garahāya vā. [26]
Birth does not prevent reproach or an unhappy destiny.

 

Na jaccā vasalo hoti, na jaccā hoti brāhmaṇo,
One is not an outcaste by birth, by birth one is not a brahmin,

kammanā vasalo hoti kammanā hoti brāhmaṇo” ti. [27]
by deeds one becomes an outcaste, one becomes a brahmin by deeds.”

 

Evaṁ vutte Aggikabhāradvājo brāhmaṇo Bhagavantaṁ etad-avoca:
After this was said, the brahmin Aggikabhāradvāja said this to the Gracious One:

“Abhikkantaṁ bho Gotama! Abhikkantaṁ bho Gotama!
“Excellent, reverend Gotama! Excellent, reverend Gotama!

Seyyathā pi bho Gotama nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya,
Just as, reverend Gotama, one might set upright what has been overturned,

paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya,
or open up what has been closed, or show a path to one who is lost,

andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya
or bear an oil lamp in the darkness

cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhintī ti,
so that one who has eyes can see forms,

evam-evaṁ bhotā Gotamena anekapariyāyena Dhammo pakāsito. CBhp: pakasati.10
just so has the Dhamma been made clear by reverend Gotama in more than one way.

Esāhaṁ bhavantaṁ CBhp, PPV2: Bhagavantaṁ.11 Gotamaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi,
I go to the reverend Gotama for refuge,

Dhammañ-ca bhikkhusaṅghañ-ca.
and to the Dhamma, and to the Saṅgha of monks.

Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhavaṁ Gotamo dhāretu
Please bear it in mind, reverend Gotama, that I am a lay disciple

ajjatagge CBhp: ajjagagge, presumably by mistake.12 pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gatan”-ti.
who has gone for refuge from today forward for as long as I am furnished with life.”