(Dhammacakkappavattanasuttaṁ)
(The Discourse that Set the Dhamma Wheel Rolling)

(from Vinaya Mahāvagga 1)

Edited & Translated by Ānandajoti Bhikkhu

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...atha kho Bhagavā pañcavaggiye bhikkhū āmantesi:
...then the Gracious One addressed the group-of-five monks, saying:

Dveme bhikkhave antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā,
“There are these two extremes, monks, that one who has gone forth ought not to associate with,

yo cāyaṁ: kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo,
which is this: devotion to the pleasure and happiness in sense pleasures,

hīno, gammo, pothujjaniko, anariyo, anatthasaṁhito;
which is low, vulgar, worldly, ignoble, and not connected with the goal;

yo cāyaṁ: attakilamathānuyogo,
and this: devotion to self-mortification,

dukkho, anariyo, anatthasaṁhito.
which is painful, ignoble, and not connected with the goal.

Ete te bhikkhave ubho ante anupagamma, majjhimā paṭipadā
Not having approached either of these two extremes, monks, the middle practice

Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā, cakkhukaraṇī, ñāṇakaraṇī,
was awakened to by the Realised One, which produces vision, produces knowledge,

upasamāya abhiññāya Sambodhāya Nibbānāya saṁvattati.
and which leads to peace, deep knowledge, Complete Awakening, and Emancipation.

Katamā ca bhikkhave majjhimā paṭipadā,
Now what is this middle practice, monks,

Tathagatena abhisambuddha, cakkhukaraṇī, ñāṇakaraṇī,
that was awakened to by the Realised One, which produces vision, produces knowledge,

upasamāya abhiññāya Sambodhāya Nibbānāya saṁvattati?
and which leads to peace, deep knowledge, Complete Awakening, and Nibbāna?

Ayam-eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathīdaṁ:
It is this noble path with eight factors, as follows:

i. sammādiṭṭhi
right view

ii. sammāsaṅkappo
right thought

iii. sammāvācā
right speech

iv. sammākammanto
right action

v. sammā-ājīvo
right livelihood

vi. sammāvāyāmo
right endeavour

vii. sammāsati
right mindfulness

viii. sammāsamādhi.
right concentration.

Ayaṁ kho bhikkhave majjhimā paṭipadā,
This is the middle practice, monks,

Tathagatena abhisambuddhā, cakkhukaraṇī, ñāṇakaraṇī,
that was awakened to by the Realised One, which produces vision, produces knowledge,

upasamāya abhiññāya Sambodhāya Nibbānāya saṁvattati.
and which leads to peace, deep knowledge, Complete Awakening, and Nibbāna.

 

The Four Noble Truths

i. Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ:
Now this, monks, is the noble truth of suffering:

jāti pi dukkhā
birth is suffering

jarā pi dukkhā
also old age is suffering

vyādhi pi dukkho
also sickness is suffering

maraṇam-pi dukkhaṁ
also death is suffering

appiyehi sampayogo dukkho
being joined to what is not dear is suffering

piyehi vippayogo dukkho
being separated from what is dear is suffering

yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ
also not to obtain what one longs for is suffering

saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.
in brief, the five constituent groups (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment are suffering.

 

ii. Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ:
Now this, monks, is the noble truth of the arising of suffering:

yaṁ taṇhā ponobhavikā,
it is that craving which leads to continuation in existence,

nandirāgasahagatā, tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathīdaṁ:
which is connected with enjoyment and passion, greatly enjoying this and that, as follows:

kāmataṇhā
craving for sense pleasures

bhavataṇhā
craving for continuation

vibhavataṇhā.
craving for discontinuation.

 

iii. Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ:
Now this, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering:

yo tassā yeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho -
it is the complete fading away and cessation without remainder of that craving -

cāgo, paṭinissaggo, mutti, anālayo.
liberation, letting go, release, and non-adherence.

 

iv. Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave,
Now this, monks,

dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ:
is the noble truth of the practice leading to the end of suffering:

Ayam-eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathīdaṁ:
It is this noble path with eight factors, as follows:

i. sammādiṭṭhi
right view

ii. sammāsaṅkappo
right thought

iii. sammāvācā
right speech

iv. sammākammanto
right action

v. sammā-ājīvo
right livelihood

vi. sammāvāyāmo
right endeavour

vii. sammāsati
right mindfulness

viii. sammāsamādhi.
right concentration.

 

Realisation

i. “Idaṁ dukkhaṁ ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of suffering” -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁpariññeyyan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of suffering” refers (i. e. suffering itself) ought to be fully known -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁpariññātan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of suffering” refers has been fully known -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

ii. “Idaṁ dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of the arising of suffering” -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁpahātabban-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the arising of suffering” refers (i. e. craving) ought to be given up -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁpahīnan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the arising of suffering” refers has been given up,

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

iii. “Idaṁ dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering” -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁsacchikātabban-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering” refers (i. e. Nibbāna) ought to be experienced -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁsacchikatan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering” refers has been experienced -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

iv. “Idaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of the practice going to the cessation of suffering”-

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁbhāvetabban-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the practice leading to the end of suffering” refers (i. e. the practice itself) ought to be developed -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁbhāvitan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the practice leading to the end of suffering” refers has been developed -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi,
vision arose, knowledge arose,

paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Declaring the Awakening

Yāva kīvañ-ca me bhikkhave imesu catusu ariyasaccesu
For as long as to me, monks, in regard to these four noble truths

- evaṁ tiparivaṭṭaṁ dvādasākāraṁ -
- turned like this, in three ways, twelvefold -

yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ na suvisuddhaṁ ahosi,
knowledge and seeing as it really is was not quite clear,

neva tāvāhaṁ bhikkhave sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake,
for that long, monks, I did not declare to the world with its gods, Māra, and Brahma,

sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya,
to this generation, with its ascetics and brahmins, princes and men,

anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho paccaññāsiṁ.
that I was fully awakened with unsurpassed complete awakening.

Yato ca kho me bhikkhave imesu catusu ariyasaccesu
But when to me, monks, in regard to these four noble truths

- evaṁ tiparivaṭṭaṁ dvādasākāraṁ -
- turned like this, in three ways, twelvefold -

yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ suvisuddhaṁ ahosi,
knowledge and seeing as it really is was quite clear,

athāhaṁ bhikkhave sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake,
then, monks, I did declare to the world with its gods, Māra, and Brahma,

sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya,
to this generation, with its ascetics and brahmins, princes and men,

anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho paccaññāsiṁ.
that I was fully awakened with unsurpassed complete awakening.

Ñāṇañ-ca pana me dassanaṁ udapādi:
To me knowledge and seeing arose:

“Akuppā me cetovimutti
“Sure is my freedom of mind

ayam-antimā jāti
this is my last birth

natthi dāni punabbhavo” ti.
now there is no continuation of existence.”

 

The First Attainment

Idam-avoca Bhagavā,
The Gracious One said this,

attamanā pañcavaggiyā bhikkhū Bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandun-ti.
and the group-of-five monks were uplifted and greatly rejoiced in what was said by the Gracious One.

Imasmiñ-ca pana veyyākaraṇasmiṁ bhaññamāne,
Moreover, as this sermon was being given,

āyasmato Koṇḍaññassa virajaṁ, vītamalaṁ,
to venerable Koṇḍañña the dust-free, stainless,

Dhammacakkhuṁ udapādi:
Vision-of-the-Dhamma arose:

Yaṁ kiñci samudayadhammaṁ,
Whatever has the nature of arising,

sabban-taṁ nirodhadhamman-ti.
all that has the nature of ceasing.

 

The Gods Rejoice

Pavattite ca pana Bhagavatā Dhammacakke
Now when the Dhamma Wheel was set rolling by the Gracious One

Bhummā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Earth gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Bhummānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Earth gods

Cātummahārājikā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the gods called the Four Great Kings let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Cātummahārājikānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the gods called the Four Great Kings

Tāvatiṁsā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Tāvatiṁsa gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Tāvatiṁsānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Tāvatiṁsa gods

Yāmā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Yāma gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Yāmānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Yāma gods

Tusitā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Tusita gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Tusitānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Tusita gods

Nimmāṇaratī devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Nimmāṇarati gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Nimmāṇaratīnaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Nimmāṇarati gods

Paranimmitavasavattino devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Paranimmitavasavatti gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Paranimmitavasavattīnaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Paranimmitavasavatti gods

Brahmakāyikā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Brahmakāyika gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
“The Gracious One, while near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
has set rolling the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena brāhmaṇena
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brahmin

devena mārena brahmunā kenaci lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a demon or by a deity or by anyone in the world.”

 

Iti ha tena khaṇena tena muhuttena,
Thus at that moment, at that second,

yāva Brahmalokā saddo abbhuggañchi,
that cry reached as far as the Brahma worlds,

ayañ-ca dasasahassī lokadhātu saṅkampi, sampakampi, sampavedhi,
and this ten thousand world-element moved, wavered, and shook,

appamāṇo ca uḷāro obhāso loke pātur-ahosi,
and great and measureless light became manifest in the world,

atikkamma devānaṁ devānubhāvan-ti.
transcending the godly power of the gods.

Atha kho Bhagavā udānaṁ udānesi:
Then the Gracious One uttered this exalted utterance:

Aññāsi vata bho Koṇḍañño,
“Koṇḍañña surely knows,

aññāsi vata bho Koṇḍaññoti.
Koṇḍañña surely knows.”

Iti hidaṁ āyasmato Koṇḍaññassa
Thus to the venerable Koṇḍañña

Aññā Koṇḍañño tveva nāmaṁ ahosī ti.
came the name Aññā Koṇḍañña (Koṇḍañña, he-who-knows).