Titthāyatanasuttaṁ (Aṅg. 3.62)
The Discourse about the Belief Systems

Edited & Translated by Ānandajoti Bhikkhu

PDFEPUBMOBI

 

Table of Contents (outline)

The Three Belief Systems

Those who Believe in what was Done in the Past
Those who Believe in the Power of God
Those who Believe there is No Cause or Condition

The Buddha's Teaching

The Six Elements
The Six Spheres of Contact
The Eighteen Investigations of Mind
The Four Noble Truths

 

The Three Belief Systems

Tīṇimāni RTE: Tīṇīmāni.01 bhikkhave titthāyatanāni,
There are these three belief systems, monks,

yāni paṇḍitehi samanuyuñjiyamānāni samanugāhiyamānāni RTE: samanuggāhiyamānāni, and similarly throughout.02 samanubhāsiyamānāni
and though questioned, queried, and discussed by wise men,

param-pi gantvā akiriyāya saṇṭhahanti.
(because they) The syntax of these opening lines is not clear, and only through the bracketed addition, giving causal meaning, can we make good sense. The comm. says: ‘Param-pi gantvā’ ti ācariyaparamparā laddhiparamparā attabhāvaparamparā ti etesu yaṁ kiñci paramparaṁ gantvā pi; ‘have come down’ (means) a tradition (paramparā) coming from a teacher, a tradition coming from a theory, a tradition coming from an individual, whatever tradition has come down from these.03 have come down from others, they persist in inaction.

Katamāni tīṇi?
Which three?

Santi bhikkhave eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brahmins, monks, who are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ RTE: sabban-taṁ, and similarly throughout.04 pubbekatahetū” ti.
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that is due to what was done in the past.” This was a belief held amongst the Jains (see MN 101). Many Buddhists today hold a similar view and believe that everything is happening only according to kammavipāka, without allowing for other conditions. The Buddha will show the consequences of this view below and refute it.05

Santi bhikkhave eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brahmins, monks, who are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ Issaranimmānahetū” ti.
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that is due to the power of God.” ‘Issaranimmānahetū’ ti issaranimmānakāraṇā, issarena nimmitattā paṭisaṁvedetī ti attho. ‘Due to the power of God’ by the power of God, he experiences through the powerfulness of God, is the meaning. This belief logically applies to all who believe in a Creator God, including Christians, Muslims, and certain Hindus.06

Santi bhikkhave eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brahmins, monks, who are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ ahetu-appaccayā ” ti.
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that has no cause or condition.” This would include most materialists, who do not admit moral causation.07

Those who Believe in what was Done in the Past

Tatra bhikkhave ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
Here, monks, (as for) those ascetics and brahmins who are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ pubbekatahetū” ti,
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that is due to what was done in the past,”

tyāhaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evaṁ vadāmi:
having approached them, I say:

“Saccaṁ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
“Is it true that you venerables are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ pubbekatahetū?” ti,
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that is due to what was done in the past?”,

te ce ChS: ca, here and below.08 me evaṁ puṭṭhā “āmā” ti paṭijānanti, tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi:
and if they agree with me when questioned thus, (saying) “yes”, I say to them: Notice that the Buddha is always careful to verify another's belief before he refutes it.09

“Tena hāyasmanto pāṇātipātino bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
“Then, venerables, (people) will be killers of living creatures because of what was done in the past,

adinnādāyino bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be takers of what is not given because of what was done in the past,

abrahmacārino bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be unchaste because of what was done in the past,

musāvādino bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be speakers of what is false because of what was done in the past,

pisuṇavācā bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be utterers of divisive words because of what was done in the past,

pharusavācā bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be utterers of harsh words because of what was done in the past,

samphappalāpino bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be frivolous talkers because of what was done in the past,

abhijjhāluno bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be avaracious because of what was done in the past,

vyāpannacittā bhavissanti pubbekatahetu,
they will be malevolent because of what was done in the past,

micchādiṭṭhikā bhavissanti pubbekatahetu. These are the ten paths of unwholesome actions (dasākusalakammapathā).10
they will hold to wrong views because of what was done in the past.

Pubbekataṁ kho pana bhikkhave sārato paccāgacchataṁ
But, monks, for he who holds what was done in the past as the essential thing,

na hoti chando vā vāyāmo vā: “idaṁ vā karaṇīyaṁ idaṁ vā akaraṇīyan”-ti,
there is no desire nor effort (thinking): “this should be done, or this should not be done”,

iti karaṇīyākaraṇīye kho pana saccato thetato anupalabbhiyamāne,
but there being no truth or trust in what should be done or what should not be done,

muṭṭhassatīnaṁ anārakkhānaṁ viharataṁ,
he lives without mindfulness, Lit: having lost his mindfulness.11 without protection, ‘Anārakkhānaṁ viharatan’-ti chasu dvāresu nirārakkhānaṁ viharantānaṁ, ‘he lives without protection’, he lives without protection of the six doors (of sense).12

na hoti paccattaṁ sahadhammiko samaṇavādo.
and that individual cannot reasonably be called an ascetic. Samaṇa is derived from the root √sam, to exert (oneself), to strive, but one holding this view (or any of the others mentioned below) doesn't have any reason to strive at all, and therefore cannot reasonably be called an ascetic.13

Ayaṁ kho me bhikkhave tesu samaṇabrāhmaṇesu evaṁvādīsu evaṁdiṭṭhīsu,
This, monks, for the ascetics and brahmins who are of these arguments, these views,

paṭhamo sahadhammiko niggaho hoti.
is my first reasonable reproach.

Those who Believe in the Power of God

Tatra bhikkhave ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
Here, monks, (as for) those ascetics and brahmins who are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ Issaranimmānahetū” ti,
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that is due to the power of God,”

tyāhaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evaṁ vadāmi:
having approached them, I say:

“Saccaṁ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
“Is it true that you venerables are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ Issaranimmānahetū?” ti,
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that is due to the power of God?”,

te ce me evaṁ puṭṭhā “āmā” ti paṭijānanti, tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi:
and if they agree with me when questioned thus, (saying) “yes”, I say to them:

“Tena hāyasmanto pāṇātipātino bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
“Then, venerables, (people) will be killers of living creatures due to the power of God,

adinnādāyino bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be takers of what is not given due to the power of God,

abrahmacārino bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be unchaste due to the power of God,

musāvādino bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be speakers of what is false due to the power of God,

pisuṇavācā bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be utterers of divisive words due to the power of God,

pharusavācā bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be utterers of harsh words due to the power of God,

samphappalāpino bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be frivolous talkers due to the power of God,

abhijjhāluno bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be avaracious due to the power of God,

vyāpannacittā bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu,
they will be malevolent due to the power of God,

micchādiṭṭhikā bhavissanti Issaranimmānahetu.
they will hold to wrong views due to the power of God.

Issaranimmānaṁ kho pana bhikkhave sārato paccāgacchataṁ
But, monks, for he who holds the power of God as the essential thing,

na hoti chando vā vāyāmo vā: “idaṁ vā karaṇīyaṁ idaṁ vā akaraṇīyan”-ti,
there is no desire nor effort (thinking): “this should be done, or this should not be done”,

iti karaṇīyākaraṇīye kho pana saccato thetato anupalabbhiyamāne,
but there being no truth or trust in what should be done or what should not be done,

muṭṭhassatīnaṁ anārakkhānaṁ viharataṁ,
he lives without mindfulness, without protection,

na hoti paccattaṁ sahadhammiko samaṇavādo.
and that individual cannot reasonably be called an ascetic.

Ayaṁ kho me bhikkhave tesu samaṇabrāhmaṇesu evaṁvādīsu evaṁdiṭṭhīsu,
This, monks, for the ascetics and brahmins who are of these arguments, these views,

dutiyo sahadhammiko niggaho hoti.
is my second reasonable reproach.

Those who Believe there is No Cause or Condition

Tatra bhikkhave ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
Here, monks, (as for) those ascetics and brahmins who are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ ahetu-appaccayāhetū” ti,
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that has no cause or condition,”

tyāhaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evaṁ vadāmi:
having approached them, I say:

“Saccaṁ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
“Is it true that you venerables are of this argument, this view:

“Yaṁ kiñcāyaṁ purisapuggalo paṭisaṁvedeti,
“Whatever an individual experiences,

sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā sabbaṁ taṁ ahetu-appaccayāhetū?” ti,
whether pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, all of that has no cause or condition?”,

te ce me evaṁ puṭṭhā “āmā” ti paṭijānanti, tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi:
and if they agree with me when questioned thus, (saying) “yes”, I say to them:

“Tena hāyasmanto pāṇātipātino bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
“Then, venerables, (people) will be killers of living creatures with no cause or condition,

adinnādāyino bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be takers of what is not given with no cause or condition,

abrahmacārino bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be unchaste with no cause or condition,

musāvādino bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be speakers of what is false with no cause or condition,

pisuṇavācā bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be utterers of divisive words with no cause or condition,

pharusavācā bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be utterers of harsh words with no cause or condition,

samphappalāpino bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be frivolous talkers with no cause or condition,

abhijjhāluno bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be avaracious with no cause or condition,

vyāpannacittā bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu,
they will be malevolent with no cause or condition,

micchādiṭṭhikā bhavissanti ahetu-appaccayāhetu.
they will hold to wrong views with no cause or condition.

Ahetu-appaccayaṁ kho pana bhikkhave sārato paccāgacchataṁ
But, monks, for he who holds no cause or condition as the essential thing,

na hoti chando vā vāyāmo vā: “idaṁ vā karaṇīyaṁ idaṁ vā akaraṇīyan”-ti,
there is no desire nor effort (thinking): “this should be done, or this should not be done”,

iti karaṇīyākaraṇīye kho pana saccato thetato anupalabbhiyamāne,
but there being no truth or trust in what should be done or what should not be done,

muṭṭhassatīnaṁ anārakkhānaṁ viharataṁ,
he lives without mindfulness, without protection,

na hoti paccattaṁ sahadhammiko samaṇavādo.
and that individual cannot reasonably be called an ascetic.

Ayaṁ kho me bhikkhave tesu samaṇabrāhmaṇesu evaṁvādīsu evaṁdiṭṭhīsu,
This, monks, for the ascetics and brahmins who are of these arguments, these views,

tatiyo sahadhammiko niggaho hoti.
is my third reasonable reproach.

Imāni kho bhikkhave tīṇi titthāyatanāni,
These are the three belief systems, monks,

yāni paṇḍitehi samanuyuñjiyamānāni samanugāhiyamānāni samanubhāsiyamānāni,
and though questioned, queried, and discussed by wise men,

param-pi gantvā akiriyāya saṇṭhahanti.
(because they) have come down from others, they persist in inaction.

The Buddha's Teaching

Ayaṁ kho pana bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
But this is the Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho TRE: appaṭikkuṭṭho, similarly elsewhere.14 samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Katamo ca bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
What is the Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi?
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins?

“Imā cha dhātuyo” ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
“These are the six elements” is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

“Imāni cha phassāyatanānī” ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
“These are the six spheres of contact” is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

“Ime aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā” ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
“These are the eighteen investigations of mind” is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

“Imāni cattāri ariyasaccānī” ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
“These are the four noble truths” is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

The Six Elements

“ ‘Imā cha dhātuyo’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
“ ‘These are the six elements’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ, kiñ-cetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
This is what was said, but in regard to what was it said?

Chayimā bhikkhave dhātuyo:
There are these six elements, monks:

paṭhavīdhātu, ChS: pathavīdhātu.15 āpodhātu, tejodhātu, vāyodhātu, ākāsadhātu, viññāṇadhātu.
the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the wind element, the space element, the consciousness element. Sometimes the elements are listed as the first four, and sometimes as the first five.16

‘Imā cha dhātuyo’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
‘These are the six elements’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ, kiñ-cetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
This is what was said, but in regard to what was it said?

Iti yaṁ taṁ RTE: yan-taṁ, and similarly throughout.17 vuttaṁ, idam-etaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
This is that which was said, and this is the reason it was said.

The Six Spheres of Contact

‘Imāni cha phassāyatanānī’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
‘These are the six spheres of contact’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ, kiñ-cetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
This is what was said, but in regard to what was it said?

Chayimāni bhikkhave phassāyatanāni:
There are these six spheres of contact, monks:

cakkhuṁ ChS: cakkhu.18 phassāyatanaṁ, sotaṁ phassāyatanaṁ, ghānaṁ phassāyatanaṁ,
the eye sphere of contact, the ear sphere of contact, the nose sphere of contact,

jivhā phassāyatanaṁ, kāyo phassāyatanaṁ, mano phassāyatanaṁ.
the tongue sphere of contact, the body sphere of contact, the mind sphere of contact.

‘Imāni cha phassāyatanānī’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
‘These are the six spheres of contact’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idam-etaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
This is that which was said, and this is the reason it was said.

The Eighteen Investigations of Mind

‘Ime aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
‘These are the eighteen investigations of mind’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins. This teaching seems to be mentioned only here, and in the commentaries on this discourse, except when it is quoted from here (as in the commentary to Mūlapariyāyasuttaṁ (MN 1), but it is enunciated as though it were a well-known teaching.19

Iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ, kiñ-cetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
This is what was said, but in regard to what was it said?

Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati,
Having seen a form with the eye he investigates whether it is to be classified as a pleasant form,

domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a unpleasant form,

upekkhaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati.
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a neutral form. upekkhā here is equivalent to adukkhamasukhavedanā.20

Sotena saddaṁ sutvā somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ saddaṁ upavicarati,
Having heard a sound with the ear he investigates whether it is to be classified as a pleasant sound,

domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ saddaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a unpleasant sound,

upekkhaṭṭhāniyaṁ saddaṁ upavicarati.
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a neutral sound.

Ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ gandhaṁ upavicarati,
Having smelt a smell with the nose he investigates whether it is to be classified as a pleasant smell,

domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ gandhaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a unpleasant smell,

upekkhaṭṭhāniyaṁ gandhaṁ upavicarati.
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a neutral smell.

Jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rasaṁ upavicarati,
Having tasted a taste with the tongue he investigates whether it is to be classified as a pleasant taste,

domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rasaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a unpleasant taste,

upekkhaṭṭhāniyaṁ rasaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a neutral taste,

Kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ phoṭṭhabbaṁ upavicarati,
Having touched a tangible with the body he investigates whether it is to be classified as a pleasant tangible,

domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ phoṭṭhabbaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a unpleasant tangible,

upekkhaṭṭhāniyaṁ phoṭṭhabbaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a neutral tangible,

Manasā dhammaṁ viññāya somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati,
Having cognised a mental object with the mind he investigates whether it is to be classified as a pleasant mental object,

domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati,
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a unpleasant mental object,

upekkhaṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati.
he investigates whether it is to be classified as a neutral mental object.

‘Ime aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
‘These are the eighteen investigations of mind’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idam-etaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
This is that which was said, and this is the reason it was said.

The Four Noble Truths

‘Imāni cattāri ariyasaccānī’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
‘These are the four noble truths’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ, kiñ-cetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
This is what was said, but in regard to what was it said?

Channaṁ bhikkhave dhātūnaṁ upādāya gabbhassāvakkanti hoti,
Having attachment to the six elements, monks, there is entry into the womb,

okkantiyā sati nāmarūpaṁ,
with the appearance (in the womb) there is mind and body,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
because of mind and body: the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso,
because of the six sense spheres: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
because of contact: feeling,

vediyamānassa kho panāhaṁ bhikkhave ‘idaṁ Dukkhan’-ti paññāpemi, ChS: paññapemi, and similarly throughout.21
now to one who has feeling, monks, I declare ‘this is Suffering’,

‘ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo’ ti paññāpemi,
I declare ‘this is the arising of suffering’,

‘ayaṁ dukkhanirodho’ ti paññāpemi,
I declare ‘this is the cessation of suffering’,

‘ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ ti paññāpemi.
I declare ‘this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering’.

Katamañ-ca bhikkhave dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ?
Now what, monks, is the noble truth of suffering?

Jāti pi dukkhā
Birth is suffering

jarā pi dukkhā
also old age is suffering

maraṇam-pi dukkhaṁ
also death is suffering

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā pi dukkhā
also grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, is suffering

RTE adds: dukkhā appiyehi sampayogo, dukkho piyehi vippayogo dukkho.22yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ
also not to obtain what one longs for is suffering

saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.
in brief, the five constituent groups (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment are suffering.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ.
This I say, monks, is the noble truth of suffering.

Katamañ-ca bhikkhave Dukkhasamudayaṁ RTE: dukkhasamudayo, here and below.23 ariyasaccaṁ?
Now what, monks, is the noble truth of the arising of suffering?

Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā,
Because of ignorance there are (volitional) processes,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
because of (volitional) processes: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
because of consciousness: mind and body,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
because of mind and body: the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso,
because of the six sense spheres: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
because of contact: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
because of feeling: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
because of craving: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
because of attachment: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
because of continuation: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
because of birth: old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) arise,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ.
This I say, monks, is the Noble Truth of the arising of suffering.

Katamañ-ca bhikkhave dukkhanirodhaṁ RTE: dukkhanirodho, here and below.24 ariyasaccaṁ?
Now what, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering?

Avijjāya tveva asesavirāganirodhā saṅkhāranirodho,
From the complete fading away and cessation of ignorance, there is the cessation of (volitional) processes,

saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho,
from the cessation of (volitional) processes, the cessation of consciousness,

viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho,
from the cessation of consciousness, the cessation of mind and body,

nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho,
from the cessation of mind and body, the cessation of the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho,
from the cessation of the six sense spheres, the cessation of contact,

phassanirodhā vedanānirodho,
from the cessation of contact, the cessation of feeling,

vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho,
from the cessation of feeling, the cessation of craving,

taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho,
from the cessation of craving, the cessation of attachment,

upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho,
from the cessation of attachment, the cessation of continuation,

bhavanirodhā jātinirodho,
from the cessation of continuation, the cessation of birth,

jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
from the cessation of birth, old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) cease,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.
and so there is a cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ.
This I say, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.

Katamañ-ca bhikkhave dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ?
Now what, monks, is the noble truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering?

Ayam-eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathīdaṁ: ChS: seyyathidaṁ.25
It is this noble path with eight factors, as follows:

sammādiṭṭhi
right view

sammāsaṅkappo
right thought

sammāvācā
right speech

sammākammanto
right action

sammā-ājīvo
right livelihood

sammāvāyāmo
right endeavour

sammāsati
right mindfulness

sammāsamādhi.
right concentration.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ.
This I say, monks, is the noble truth of path leading to the cessation of suffering.

‘Imāni cattāri ariyasaccānī’ ti bhikkhave mayā Dhammo desito
‘These are the four noble truths’ is a Teaching, monks, taught by me

aniggahito asaṁkiliṭṭho anupavajjo appaṭikuṭṭho samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī ti.
that is without reproach, undefiled, blameless, and unreviled by wise ascetics and brahmins.

Iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idam-etaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
This is that which was said, and this is the reason it was said.

[Nitthitaṁ]
[Finished]