Ja 57 Vānarindajātaka
The Birth Story about the Lord of the Monkeys (1s)

In the present Devadatta sets out to kill the Buddha, who replies that he did this in the past also, and tells a story of how, when he was a monkey, he outwitted a crocodile and escaped being eaten.

The Bodhisatta = the lord of the monkeys (vānarinda),
Devadatta = the crocodile (kumbhīla),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = the (crocodile’s) wife (bhariyā).

Present Source: Ja 57 Vānarinda,
Quoted at: Ja 224 Kumbhīla,
Past Compare: Ja 57 Vānarinda, Ja 208 Suṁsumāra, Ja 224 Kumbhīla, Ja 342 Vānara, Cp 27 Kapirājacariyā, Mvu iii p 40 Vānara (II).

Keywords: Trickery, Animals.

“He who, monkey-king.” [1.142] This story was told by the Teacher, while at the Bamboo Grove, about Devadatta’s going about to kill him. Being informed of Devadatta’s murderous intent, the Teacher said: “This is not the first time, monks, that Devadatta has gone about seeking to kill me; he did just the same in bygone days, but failed to get his wicked way.” And so saying, he told this story of the past.

In the past when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life again as a monkey. When full-grown, he was as big as a mare’s foal and enormously strong. He lived alone on the banks of a river, in the middle of which was an island whereon grew mangoes and breadfruits, and other fruit trees. And in mid-stream, halfway between the island and the riverbank, a solitary rock rose out of the water. Being as strong as an elephant, the Bodhisatta used to leap from the bank on to this rock and thence on to the island. Here he would eat his fill of the fruits that grew on the island, returning at evening by the way he came. And such was his life from day to day.

Now there lived in those days in that river a crocodile and his mate; and she, being with young, was led by the sight of the Bodhisatta journeying to and fro to conceive {1.279} a longing for the monkey’s heart to eat. So she begged her lord to catch the monkey for her. Promising that she should have her fancy, the crocodile went off and took his stand on the rock, meaning to catch the monkey on his evening journey home.

After ranging about the island all day, the Bodhisatta looked out at evening towards the rock and wondered why the rock stood so high out of the water. For the story goes that the Bodhisatta always marked the exact height of the water in the river, and of the rock in the water. So, when he saw that, though the water stood at the same level, the rock seemed to stand higher out of the water, he suspected that a crocodile might be lurking there to catch him. And, in order to find out the facts of the case, he shouted, as though addressing the rock, “Hi! Rock!” And, as no reply came back, he shouted three times, “Hi! Rock!” And [1.143] as the rock still kept silence, the monkey called out, “How comes it, friend rock, that you won’t answer me today?”

“Oh!” thought the crocodile, “so the rock’s in the habit of answering the monkey. I must answer for the rock today.” Accordingly, he shouted, “Yes, monkey; what is it?” “Who are you?” said the Bodhisatta. “I’m a crocodile.” “What are you sitting on that rock for? “To catch you and eat your heart.” As there was no other way back, the only thing to be done was to outwit the crocodile. So the Bodhisatta cried out, “There’s no help for it then but to give myself up to you. Open your mouth and catch me when I jump.”

Now you must know that when crocodiles open their mouths, their eyes shut. This assertion is not in accord with the facts of natural history. So, when this crocodile unsuspiciously opened his mouth, his eyes shut. And there he waited with closed eyes and open jaws! Seeing this, the wily monkey made a jump on to the crocodile’s head, and thence, with a spring like lightning, gained the bank. When the cleverness of this feat dawned on the crocodile, he said: “Monkey, he that in this world {1.280} possesses the four virtues overcomes his foes. And you, I think, possess all four.” And, so saying, he repeated this verse:

1. Yassete caturo dhammā, vānarinda, yathā tava:
Saccaṁ dhammo dhiti cāgo, diṭṭhaṁ so ativattatī ti.

He who, monkey-king, like you, has these four things: truth, wisdom, courage, charity, will overcome his foe.

And with this praise of the Bodhisatta, the crocodile betook himself to his own dwelling-place.

Said the Teacher, “This is not the first time then, monks, that Devadatta has gone about seeking to kill me; he did just the same in bygone days too.” And, having ended his lesson, the Teacher showed the connection and identified the Jātaka by saying: “Devadatta was the crocodile of those days, the brahmin-girl Ciñcā Her identification here as the crocodile’s wicked wife is due to the fact that Ciñcā, who was a “female ascetic of rare beauty,” was suborned by Gotama’s enemies to simulate pregnancy and charge him with the paternity. How the deceit was exposed, is told in Dhp-a XIII.9. was the crocodile’s wife, and I myself the monkey-king.”