Ja 6 Devadhammajātaka
The Story about having Deva-nature

In the present a rich man ordains in the Saṅgha, and makes sure he has all provisions for his life. The Buddha tells a story of three princes who go to the forest together, awaiting their father’s passing. While there, a Water Rakkhasa captures two of the brothers when they cannot explain what is truly godlike. The Bodhisatta explains it well though, and the brothers are released.

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
1. Hiri-ottappasampannā, sukkadhammasamāhitā,
Endowed with conscience and concern, having an unsullied nature,

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
Santo sappurisā loke Devadhammā ti vuccare ti.
Those virtuous and good people in the world are said to have Deva-nature.

Tattha, {1.129} hiri-ottappasampannā ti,
In this connection, endowed with conscience and concern,

hiriyā ca ottappena ca samannāgatā.
endowed with both conscience and concern. Analysing the compound.

Tesu kāyaduccaritādīhi hiriyatī ti hirī, lajjāyetaṁ adhivacanaṁ.
Amongst these two those who have a conscience about wrong bodily actions and so on have conscience, this is a term for shame.

Tehi yeva ottappatī ti ottappaṁ, pāpato ubbegassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ.
For those who are concerned (about something) there is concern, this is a term for fear of wrong.

Tattha ajjhattasamuṭṭhānā hirī, bahiddhāsamuṭṭhānaṁ ottappaṁ.
Herein conscience arises internally, concern arises externally.

Attādhipateyyā hirī, lokādhipateyyaṁ ottappaṁ.
Conscience depends on oneself as authority, concern depends on worldly authority.

Lajjāsabhāvasaṇṭhitā hirī, bhayasabhāvasaṇṭhitaṁ ottappaṁ.
Shame arises naturally with conscience, fear arises naturally with concern.

Sappatissavalakkhaṇā hirī,
Conscience is marked by respect,

vajjabhīrukabhayadassāvilakkhaṇaṁ ottappaṁ.
concern is marked by avoidance, timidity and seeing danger.

Tattha, ajjhattasamuṭṭhānaṁ hiriṁ catūhi kāraṇehi samuṭṭhāpeti:
In this connection, conscience arising internally is made to arise in four ways:

jātiṁ paccavekkhitvā, vayaṁ paccavekkhitvā, {1.130}
through reflection on birth, through reflection of age,

sūrabhāvaṁ paccavekkhitvā, bāhusaccaṁ paccavekkhitvā.
through reflection on valour, through reflection on being learned.

Kathaṁ?
How?

“Pāpakaraṇaṁ nāmetaṁ na jātisampannānaṁ kammaṁ,
“What is known as wrong-doing is not a deed that comes with (good) birth,

hīnajaccānaṁ kevaṭṭādīnaṁ kammaṁ,
it is a deed for those of low birth, like fishermen and so on,

mādisassa jātisampannassa idaṁ kammaṁ kātuṁ na yuttan,”-ti
for one with a birth like mine this deed is not suitable to be done,”

evaṁ tāva jātiṁ paccavekkhitvā
thus reflecting on birth

pāṇātipātādipāpaṁ akaronto hiriṁ samuṭṭhāpeti.
causing conscience to arise, there is a non-doing of wrong deeds like killing living beings and so on.

Tathā: “Pāpakaraṇaṁ nāmetaṁ daharehi kattabbaṁ kammaṁ,
Then: “What is known as wrong-doing is something that should not be done (even) by children,

mādisassa vaye ṭhitassa idaṁ kammaṁ kātuṁ na yuttan,”-ti
for one of my age this deed is not suitable to be done,”

evaṁ vayaṁ paccavekkhitvā
thus reflecting on age

pāṇātipātādipāpaṁ akaronto hiriṁ samuṭṭhāpeti.
causing conscience to arise, there is a non-doing of wrong deeds like killing living beings and so on.

Tathā: “Pāpakammaṁ nāmetaṁ dubbalajātikānaṁ kammaṁ,
Then: “What is known as a wrong deed is something that is done by the weak,

mādisassa sūrabhāvasampannassa idaṁ kammaṁ kātuṁ na yuttan,”-ti
for one endowed with my valour this deed is not suitable to be done,”

evaṁ sūrabhāvaṁ paccavekkhitvā
thus reflecting on valour

pāṇātipātādipāpaṁ akaronto hiriṁ samuṭṭhāpeti.
causing conscience to arise, there is a non-doing of wrong deeds like killing living beings and so on.

Tathā: “Pāpakammaṁ nāmetaṁ
Then: “What is known as a wrong deed

andhabālānaṁ kammaṁ, na paṇḍitānaṁ,
is something that is done by blind fools, not by the wise,

mādisassa paṇḍitassa bahussutassa idaṁ kammaṁ kātuṁ na yuttan”-ti
for a learned wise one one like me this deed is not suitable to be done,”

evaṁ bāhusaccaṁ paccavekkhitvā
thus reflecting on being learned

pāṇātipātādipāpaṁ akaronto hiriṁ samuṭṭhāpeti.
causing conscience to arise, there is a non-doing of wrong deeds like killing living beings and so on.

Evaṁ ajjhattasamuṭṭhānaṁ hiriṁ catūhi kāraṇehi samuṭṭhāpeti.
Thus conscience arising internally is made to arise in four ways.

Samuṭṭhāpetvā ca pana attano citte hiriṁ pavesetvā,
Having been made to arise in his own mind, conscience enters,

pāpakammaṁ na karoti.
and he does not do a wrong deed.

Evaṁ hirī ajjhattasamuṭṭhānā nāma hoti.
Thus conscience is known as arising internally.

Kathaṁ ottappaṁ bahiddhāsamuṭṭhānaṁ nāma?
How does what is known as concern arise externally?

“Sace tvaṁ pāpakammaṁ karissasi,
“If you do a wrong deed,

catūsu parisāsu garahappatto bhavissasi, garahissanti taṁ viññū,
you will be blamed amongst the four assemblies, the wise will blame you,

asuciṁ nāgariko yathā vajjito sīlavantehi,
just as a foul city dweller is avoided by the virtuous,

kathaṁ bhikkhu karissasī” ti? Dhs-a, PTS p. 126.
what will you do, monk?”

Evaṁ paccavekkhanto hi bahiddhāsamuṭṭhitena ottappena,
Thus reflecting because of concern that has arisen externally,

pāpakammaṁ na karoti.
he does not do a wrong deed.

Evaṁ ottappaṁ bahiddhāsamuṭṭhānaṁ nāma hoti.
Thus what is called concern arises externally.

Kathaṁ hirī attādhipateyyā nāma?
How does what is called conscience depend on self as authority?

Idhekacco kulaputto, attānaṁ adhipatiṁ, jeṭṭhakaṁ katvā:
Here a certain son of a good family, having control of himself, putting (the world) to the fore,

“Mādisassa saddhāpabbajitassa bahussutassa dhutaṅgadharassa
thinking: “For one like me, having gone forth in faith, being learned, and engaged in the ascetic practices,

na yuttaṁ pāpakammaṁ kātun,”-ti pāpaṁ na karoti.
this wrong deed is not suitable to be done,” he does nothing wrong.

Evaṁ hirī attādhipateyyā nāma hoti.
Thus what is called conscience arises internally.

Tenāha Bhagavā:
This was said by the Fortunate One: AN 3.40.

“So attānaṁ yeva adhipatiṁ katvā,
“Having made himself the master,

akusalaṁ pajahati, kusalaṁ bhāveti,
he abandons the unwholesome, develops the wholesome,

sāvajjaṁ pajahati, anavajjaṁ bhāveti,
he abandons the blameworthy, develops the blameless,

suddham-attānaṁ pariharatī” ti.
taking care to purify himself.”

Kathaṁ ottappaṁ lokādhipateyyaṁ nāma?
How does concern depend on what is called the world as authority?

Idhekacco kulaputto, lokaṁ adhipatiṁ, jeṭṭhakaṁ katvā
Here a certain son of a good family, controlled by the world, putting (the world) to the fore,

pāpakammaṁ na karoti.
does no wrong deed.

Yathāha: “Mahā kho panāyaṁ lokasannivāso.”
Just as it is said: “Great is the world community.”

Mahantasmiṁ kho pana lokasannivāse santi samaṇabrāhmaṇā
In this great world community there are ascetics and brahmins

iddhimanto dibbacakkhukā paracittaviduno,
who have spiritual power, the divine eye, and can read other’s minds,

te dūrato pi passanti, āsannāpi na dissanti,
they can see from afar, (so how) will what is near not be seen,

cetasā pi cittaṁ jānanti, te pi maṁ evaṁ jānissanti:
they know (someone’s) intention by their minds, and they will know me thus:

‘Passatha, bho, imaṁ kulaputtaṁ,
‘See, dear, this son of a good family,

saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ {1.131} pabbajito
who went forth from home life to the homeless life

samāno vokiṇṇo viharati pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehī.’ ti
is now living full of wrong, unwholesome thoughts.’

Santi Devatā iddhimantiyo dibbacakkhukā paracittaviduniyo,
There are Devatās who have spiritual power, the divine eye, and can read others’ minds,

tā dūrato pi passanti, āsannāpi na dissanti,
they can see from afar, (so how) will what is near not be seen,

cetasā pi cittaṁ jānanti, tā pi maṁ evaṁ jānissanti:
they know (someone’s) intention by their minds, therefore they will know me in this way:

‘Passatha, bho, imaṁ kulaputtaṁ,
‘See, dear, this son of a good family,

saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito {1.131}
who went forth from home life to the homeless life

samāno vokiṇṇo viharati pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehī.’ ti
is now living full of wrong, unwholesome thoughts.’

“So lokaṁ yeva adhipatiṁ, jeṭṭhakaṁ karitvā, AN 3.40.
“Being controlled by the world, putting himself to the fore,

akusalaṁ pajahati, kusalaṁ bhāveti,
he abandons the unwholesome, develops the wholesome,

sāvajjaṁ pajahati, anavajjaṁ bhāveti,
he abandons the blameworthy, develops the blameless,

suddham-attānaṁ pariharatī” ti.
taking care to purify himself.”

Evaṁ ottappaṁ lokādhipateyyaṁ nāma hoti.
Thus concern depends on what is called the world as authority.

“Lajjāsabhāvasaṇṭhitā hirī, bhayasabhāvasaṇṭhitaṁ ottappan”-ti.
“Conscience arises from the state of fear, concern arises from the state of fear.”

Ettha pana lajjā ti lajjanākāro, tena sabhāvena saṇṭhitā hirī.
But here shame is an aspect of shamefulness, naturally through this conscience arises.

Bhayan-ti apāyabhayaṁ, tena sabhāvena saṇṭhitaṁ ottappaṁ.
Fear means fear of the downfall, naturally through this concern arises.

Tad-ubhayam-pi pāpaparivajjane pākaṭaṁ hoti.
This pair are clearly seen as avoiding wrong.

Ekacco hi yathā nāmeko kulaputto uccārapassāvādīni karonto,
Just as a certain person, known as a son of a good family, when passing excrement, urine and so on,

lajjitabbayuttakaṁ ekaṁ disvā, lajjanākārappatto bhaveyya hīḷito,
seeing it as something shameful, having become ashamed, would despise it,

evam-evaṁ ajjhattaṁ lajjidhammaṁ okkamitvā,
in the same way, having developed shame internally,

pāpakammaṁ na karoti.
he does not do a wrong deed.

Ekacco apāyabhayabhīto hutvā, pāpakammaṁ na karoti.
A certain person, being fearful and dreading the downfall, does not do a wrong deed.

Tatridaṁ opammaṁ:
In this connection, this is the simile:

Yathā hi dvīsu ayoguḷesu
Just as with two iron balls

eko sītalo bhaveyya gūthamakkhito, eko uṇho āditto.
one might be cold and covered with excrement, and the other is blazingly hot.

Tattha, paṇḍito sītalaṁ gūthamakkhitattā jigucchanto na gaṇhāti,
In this connection, the wise person, being disgusted, does not grasp at the cold (ball) covered with excrement,

itaraṁ ḍāhabhayena.
(nor) the other (ball) through fear of the heat.

Tattha, sītalassa gūthamakkhitassa jigucchāya agaṇhanaṁ viya,
In this connection, like being disgusted, and not grasping at the cold (ball) covered with excrement,

ajjhattaṁ lajjidhammaṁ okkamitvā, pāpassa akaraṇaṁ,
having developed shame internally, he does no wrong deed,

uṇhassa ḍāhabhayena agaṇhanaṁ viya apāyabhayena,
and like not grasping at the hot (ball) through fear of the heat, through fear of the downfall,

pāpassa akaraṇaṁ, veditabbaṁ.
he does no wrong deed, so it should be understood.

“Sappatissavalakkhaṇā hirī,
“Respect is a mark of conscience,

vajjabhīrukabhayadassāvilakkhaṇaṁ ottappan”-ti.
avoidance, timidity and recognising fear is a mark of concern.” This quotation is found only in the commentaries.

Idam-pi dvayaṁ pāpaparivajjane yeva pākaṭaṁ hoti.
These two things are clearly seen as avoiding wrong.

Ekacco hi jātimahattapaccavekkhaṇā,
Therefore some, reflecting on having an outstanding birth,

satthumahattapaccavekkhaṇā,
(some,) reflecting on having an outstanding teacher,

dāyajjamahattapaccavekkhaṇā,
(some,) reflecting on having an outstanding inheritance,

sabrahmacārimahattapaccavekkhaṇāti
(some,) reflecting on having an outstanding spiritual life,

catūhi kāraṇehi sappatissavalakkhaṇaṁ,
through these four causes have a mark of respect,

hiriṁ samuṭṭhāpetvā pāpaṁ na karoti.
and through the arising of conscience he does no wrong.

Ekacco attānuvādabhayaṁ, parānuvādabhayaṁ,
Some fear self reproach, (others) fear the reproach of others,

daṇḍabhayaṁ, duggatibhayan-ti.
fear punishment, (or) fear a bad destination.

Catūhi kāraṇehi vajjabhīrukabhayadassāvilakkhaṇaṁ,
Through these four causes there is the mark of avoidance, timidity and a recognising of fear,

ottappaṁ samuṭṭhāpetvā pāpaṁ na karoti.
and having made concern arise he does no wrong.

Tattha, jātimahattapaccavekkhaṇādīni ceva,
In this connection, reflecting on having an outstanding birth, and so on,

attānuvādabhayādīni ca vitthāretvā kathetabbāni.
and fearing self reproach, and so on, he should speak in detail.

Tesaṁ vitthāro Aṅguttaranikāyaṭṭhakathāyaṁ vutto.
These things are spoken of extensively in the commentary on the Numerical Collection. See PTS 2.57ff. AN 1.418.

Sukkadhammasamāhitā ti idam-eva hirottappaṁ ādiṁ katvā,
Being unsullied means having conscience and concern and so on,

kattabbā kusalā dhammā sukkadhammā nāma,
he should do wholesome things which are known as bright things,

te sabbasaṅgāhakanayena catubhūmakalokiyalokuttaradhammā.
through them all being ways of support they (bring about) the four mundane stages and the supermundane.

Tehi samāhitā samannāgatā, ti attho.
Through these one is endowed with concentration, (this) is the meaning.

Santo sappurisā loke ti kāyakammādīnaṁ santatāya santo,
Those virtuous and good people in the world means those virtuous people who continually do (good) deeds through the body and so on,

kataññukataveditāya sobhanā purisā ti sappurisā.
and those people who shine through feeling gratitude are good people.

Loko pana saṅkhāraloko, sattaloko, okāsaloko,
World is the world of processes, the world of beings, the visible world,

khandhaloko, āyatanaloko, dhātuloko ti anekavidho.
the world of the aggregates, the world of the sense spheres, the world of the elements, (these) various ways.

Tattha:
In this connection:

Eko loko: sabbe sattā āhāraṭṭhitikā
One world: Paṭis. PTS vol. 1 p. 122. all beings subsist on food.

Dve lokā: nāmañ-ca rūpañ-ca.
Two worlds: mind and body.

Tayo lokā: tisso vedanā.
Three worlds: the three feelings.

Cattāro lokā: cattāro āhārā.
Four worlds: the four foods.

Pañca lokā: pañcupādānakkhandhā.
Five worlds: the five constituent groups (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment.

Cha lokā: cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni.
Six worlds: the six internal sense spheres.

Satta lokā: satta viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo.
Seven worlds: the seven stations of consciousness.

Aṭṭha lokā: aṭṭha lokadhammā.
Eight worlds: the eight worldly conditions.

Nava lokā: nava sattāvāsā.
Nine worlds: the nine dwellings for beings.

Dasa lokā: dasāyatanāni.
Ten worlds: the ten sense spheres. Omitting the mind and its objects (which are included in the next category).

Dvādasalokā: dvādasāyatanāni.
Twelve worlds: the twelve sense spheres.

Aṭṭhārasa lokā: aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo.
Eighteen worlds: the eighteen elements.

Ettha, saṅkhāraloko vutto,
Here, when the world of processes is spoken of,

khandhalokādayo tad-antogadhā yeva.
the world of the aggregates and so on are included.

Ayaṁ loko, paraloko, Devaloko, manussaloko ti ādīsu
This world, the other world, the Deva world, the human world, and so on,

pana sattaloko vutto. {1.132}
(with this) the world of beings is spoken of.

Yāvatā candimasūriyā pariharanti disā bhanti virocamānā,
As far as moon and sun MN 49, Brahmanimantanikasutta. revolve in the directions, shining, radiant,

Tāva sahassadhā loko, ettha te vattate vaso ti.
So far is the thousand-fold world, right there you wield your influence.

Ettha okāsaloko vutto.
Here the visible world is spoken of.

Tesu idha sattaloko adhippeto.
With these here the world of beings is intended.

Sattalokasmiñ-hi ye evarūpā sappurisā,
In the world of beings whatever good people there are,

te Devadhammā ti vuccanti.
these are spoken of as having Deva-nature.

Tattha, Devā ti Sammutidevā,
In this connection, Deva means Devas through convention,

Upapattidevā, Visuddhidevā ti: tividhā.
Devas spontaneously reborn, Devas through purity: (these) three ways.

Tesu Mahāsammatakālato paṭṭhāya,
Amongst them, beginning from the time of Mahāsammata,

lokena Devā ti sammatattā rājarājakumārādayo Sammutidevā nāma.
Devas, kings, princes and so on are known as Devas through convention by the people.

Devaloke uppannā upapattidevā nāma.
Those who are reborn in the Deva world are known as Devas spontaneously reborn.

Khīṇāsavā pana Visuddhidevā nāma.
Those who have destroyed the pollutants are known as Devas through purity.

Vuttam-pi cetaṁ:
This is what is said: (Abhidhamma) Vibhaṅga 18.6.1, PTS p. 422.

Sammutidevā nāma rājāno deviyo rājakumārā.
Kings, queens and princes are known as Devas by convention.

Upapattidevā nāma Bhummadeve upādāya tad-uttaridevā.
Those reborn as earth-bound Devas and so on up from there are known as Devas spontaneously reborn.

Visuddhidevā nāma Buddhā Paccekabuddhā khīṇāsavā ti.
Buddhas, Independent Buddhas and those who have destroyed the pollutants are known as Devas through purity.

Imesaṁ Devānaṁ dhammā ti Devadhammā.
The nature of these Devas is Deva-nature.

Vuccare ti vuccanti.
Are said means are spoken of.

Hirottappamūlakā hi kusalā dhammā,
Conscience and concern are therefore the root of wholesome things,

kulasampadāya ceva Devaloke nibbattiyā ca visuddhibhāvassa ca,
success in family, rebirth in the Deva world, and purity,

kāraṇattā, kāraṇaṭṭhena tividhānam-pi
having a cause, in the sense of being caused in these three ways,

tesaṁ Devānaṁ dhammā ti Devadhammā.
for the nature of these Devas is Deva-nature.

Tehi Devadhammehi samannāgatā puggalā pi Devadhammā.
Through being endowed with Deva-nature people have Deva-nature.

Tasmā puggalādhiṭṭhānadesanāya, te Dhamme dassento:
Therefore for people having a foundation in the teaching, they show the Dhamma:

santo sappurisā loke, devadhammā ti vuccare, ti āha.
those virtuous and good people in the world are said to have Deva-nature, is said.