Ja 220 Dhammaddhajajātaka
The Story about (the Family Priest) Dhammaddhaja

In the present Devadatta is going around trying to kill the Buddha. The latter tells a story about how how in the past a corrupt official had tried to get him killed using various strategems, but with the help of Sakka he was always defeated. Eventually he was tasked with finding a man with four good qualities to look after a palace – and again he managed to find one.

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
1. Sukhaṁ jīvitarūposi, raṭṭhā vivanam-āgato,
Your life looks happy, leaving the kingdom you go to the desert,

−−⏑−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑− Siloka ravipulā
So ekako rukkhamūle, kapaṇo viya jhāyasī ti?
Alone at the root of a tree, do you meditate like a wretch?

Tattha, {2.190} sukhaṁ jīvitarūposī ti,
In this connection, your life looks happy,

tvaṁ sukhena jīvitasadiso, sukhedhito sukhaparihato viya.
your life is comparatively happy, like one grown up in happiness, maintaining happiness.

Raṭṭhā ti ākiṇṇamanussaṭṭhānā.
The kingdom means a place where people are spread out.

Vivanam-āgato ti, nirudakaṭṭhānaṁ araññaṁ paviṭṭho.
You go to the desert, having entered the wilderness, a place with no water.

Rukkhamūle ti rukkhasamīpe.
At the root of a tree means in the vicinity of a tree.

Kapaṇo viya {2.191} jhāyasī ti?
Do you meditate like a wretch?

Kapaṇo viya ekako nisinno jhāyasi pajjhāyasi,
Just like a wretch sitting alone, do you meditate, contemplate,

kiṁ nāmetaṁ cintesī? ti pucchi. It seems from this that the commentary is taking the last line in the verse as a question.
what do you think? he asks.

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
2. Sukhaṁ jīvitarūposmi, raṭṭhā vivanam-āgato,
My life looks happy, leaving the kingdom I go to the desert,

−−⏑−¦−⏑−− Siloka ravipulā
So ekako rukkhamūle,
Alone at the root of a tree,

⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
Kapaṇo viya jhāyāmi, sataṁ Dhammaṁ anussaran-ti.
Just like a wretch I meditate, recollecting the good Dhamma.

Tattha, sataṁ Dhammaṁ anussaran-ti,
In this connection, recollecting the good Dhamma,

samma, saccam-etaṁ, ahaṁ sukhaṁ jīvitarūpo,
friend, this is the truth, I am one whose life looks happy,

raṭṭhā ca vivanam-āgato,
but leaving the kingdom I came to the desert,

sohaṁ ekako va imasmiṁ rukkhamūle nisīditvā,
alone, having sat at the root of this tree,

kapaṇo viya jhāyāmi.
just like a wretch I meditate.

Yaṁ pana vadesi: “Kiṁ nāmetaṁ cintesī” ti?
But what do you say: “What do you think?”

taṁ te pavedemi: “Sataṁ Dhamman”-ti.
I reply to you: “The good Dhamma.”

Ahañ-hi sataṁ Dhammaṁ anussaranto idha nisinno.
Surely I sit here recollecting the good Dhamma.

Sataṁ Dhamman-ti,
Good Dhamma,

the good Dhamma of the Buddhas, Independent Buddhas, Buddhas’ disciples,

sataṁ sappurisānaṁ, paṇḍitānaṁ Dhammaṁ.
of the good people, the wise ones.

Lābho alābho, yaso ayaso, nindā pasaṁsā, sukhaṁ dukkhan-ti,
Gain and loss, fame and infamy, blame and praise, happiness and suffering,

ayañ-hi aṭṭhavidho lokadhammo.
surely these are the eight kinds of worldly conditions.

Iminā pana abbhāhatā santo na kampanti na pavedhenti,
But while being assailed by these he does not shake, he does not stir,

ayam-ettha akampanasaṅkhāto sataṁ Dhammo,
this here is what is reckoned as the unshakeable good Dhamma,

imaṁ anussaranto nisinnomhī, ti dīpeti.
I sit recollecting this, this is the explanation.

Anusūyako The following verses till the end of this Jātaka are not counted as Jātaka verses, so they are unnumbered. Apart from the first verse they have been commented on, so I include the verses and their commentary here. Rouse made a summary translation of much of this, which was included in the footnotes. ahaṁ deva, amajjapāyako ahaṁ,
I am not envious, O king, I am not one who drinks strong drink,

Nisnehako ahaṁ deva, akkodhanaṁ adhiṭṭhito ti.
I am not one with attachments, I am resolved on non-anger.

Itthiyā kāraṇā rāja, bandhāpesiṁ purohitaṁ,
Because of a woman, king, I had the family priest fettered,

So maṁ atthe nivedesi, tasmāhaṁ anusūyako ti.
He taught me what was beneficial, so I am not envious.

Tassattho: {2.192}
This is the meaning:

Ahaṁ, deva, pubbe imasmiṁ yeva Bārāṇasinagare, tādiso va rājā hutvā,
King, previously in this city of Benares, having become such a king,

itthiyā kāraṇā purohitaṁ bandhāpesiṁ.
because of a woman I had the family priest fettered.

Abaddhā tattha bajjhanti, yattha bālā pabhāsare,
They bind the unbound right there, where fools speak,

Baddhā pi tattha muccanti, yattha dhīrā pabhāsare ti.
They free the bound right there, where the wise speak.

Imasmiñ-hi {2.193} Jātake The verse is being quoted from Jātaka 120 as part of the commentary.
In the (Bandhana) Jātaka

āgatanayeneva ekasmiṁ kāle ayaṁ Chattapāṇi rājā hutvā.
as in the tradition, at one time I became king Chattapāṇi.

Catusaṭṭhiyā pādamūlikehi saddhiṁ sampadussitvā,
The queen, The subject, which we need first in English, is brought in from two lines below. having corrupted sixty-four foot-servants,

Bodhisattaṁ attano manorathaṁ apūrentaṁ,
and not fulfilling her heart’s desire for the Bodhisatta,

nāsetukāmāya deviyā paribhinno bandhāpesi.
desiring to ruin him, set him at variance and had him fettered.

Tadā naṁ bandhitvā, ānīto Bodhisatto,
Then having fettered him, the Bodhisatta was brought back,

yathābhūtaṁ deviyā dosaṁ āropetvā,
and having explained the real nature of the queen’s fault,

sayaṁ mutto raññā bandhāpite,
he was freed from bondage by the king,

sabbe pi te pādamūlike mocetvā:
and he had all the foot-servants set free,

“Etesañ-ca deviyā ca aparādhaṁ khamatha, mahārājā” ti ovadi.
and (further) he advised (the king), saying: “Great king, forgive the offence of these (foot-servants) and the queen.”

Sabbaṁ heṭṭhā vuttanayeneva vitthārato veditabbaṁ.
And everything should be understood in detail according to what was said (in the Jātaka) above.

Taṁ sandhāyāha:
Referring to this he said:

Itthiyā kāraṇā rāja, bandhāpesiṁ purohitaṁ,
Because of a woman, king, I had the family priest fettered,

So maṁ atthe nivedesi, tasmāhaṁ anusūyako ti.
He taught me what was beneficial, so I am not envious.

Tadā pana sohaṁ cintesiṁ:
But then I thought:

“Ahaṁ soḷasa sahassa-itthiyo pahāya,
“I have abandoned sixteen thousand women,

etaṁ ekam-eva kilesavasena, saṅgaṇhanto pi, santappetuṁ nāsakkhiṁ,
and because of the defilements, although treating her well, I was not able to please this one,

evaṁ duppūraṇīyānaṁ itthīnaṁ kujjhanaṁ nāma.
thus when angry it is hard to fulfil (the desire of) women.

Nivatthavatthe kilissante,
When clothed in soiled clothes,

‘Kasmā kilissasī’ ti? kujjhanasadisaṁ hoti.
it is like someone getting angry, saying: ‘Why are they soiled?’

Bhuttabhatte gūthabhāvaṁ āpajjante
After the the food is eaten it becomes excrement

‘Kasmā etaṁ sabhāvaṁ āpajjasī’ ti kujjhanasadisaṁ hoti.
and it is like someone getting angry, saying: ‘Why does it have such a nature?’

‘Ito dāni paṭṭhāya yāva Arahattaṁ na pāpuṇāmi,
So I determined: ‘Beginning from now for as long as I have not attained Arahatta,

tāva kilesaṁ nissāya mayi usūyā mā uppajjatū’ ti adhiṭṭhahiṁ.
envy depending on a defilement will not arise in me.’

Tato paṭṭhāya anusūyako jāto.
Beginning from there I became unenvious.

Idaṁ sandhāya: “Tasmāhaṁ anusūyako,” ti āha.
Referring to this: “Therefore I am not envious,” was said.

Matto ahaṁ mahārāja, puttamaṁsāni khādayiṁ,
When drunk, great king, I ate my own child’s flesh,

Tassa sokenahaṁ phuṭṭho, majjapānaṁ vivajjayin-ti.
Being touched by grief, I eschewed strong drink.

Ahaṁ, mahārāja, pubbe tādiso Bārāṇasirājā hutvā,
Previously, great king, I became such a king of Benares,

majjena vinā vattituṁ nāsakkhiṁ,
I was unable to continue without strong drink,

amaṁsakabhattam-pi bhuñjituṁ nāsakkhiṁ.
I was unable to eat food without meat.

Nagare uposathadivasesu māghāto hoti,
In the city, on the feast-days when killing is not allowed, On the feast-days, then as now, there were orders not to kill, so as not to offend the gods.

bhattakārako pakkhassa terasiyañ-ñeva maṁsaṁ gahetvā ṭhapesi,
the cook, having taken meat on the thirteenth of the month, I.e. on the last day before the prohibition started. set it aside,

taṁ dunnikkhittaṁ sunakhā khādiṁsu.
and, being poorly stored, the dogs ate it.

Bhattakārako uposathadivase maṁsaṁ alabhitvā,
The cook, not receiving meat on the feast-day,

rañño nānaggarasabhojanaṁ pacitvā,
having cooked various (other) foods of the best tastes for the king,

pāsādaṁ āropetvā, upanāmetuṁ asakkonto, deviṁ upasaṅkamitvā:
and ascended the palace, being unable to serve (meat), having approached the queen,

“Devi, ajja me maṁsaṁ na laddhaṁ,
he said: “Queen, today I have not received meat,

amaṁsakabhojanaṁ nāma upanāmetuṁ na sakkomi,
and I am certainly not able to serve food without meat,

kinti karomī?” ti āha.
what should I do?”

“Tāta, mayhaṁ putto raññā piyo manāpo,
“Dear, my son is held dear, is agreeable to the king,

puttaṁ me disvā, rājā tam-eva cumbanto parissajanto,
having seen my son, the king, kissing and embracing him,

attano {2.194} atthibhāvam-pi na jānāti,
does not think Lit: does not know. even of his own existence,

ahaṁ puttaṁ maṇḍetvā, rañño ūrumhi nisīdāpeyyaṁ,
having dressed up my son, and made him sit on the king’s lap,

rañño puttena saddhiṁ kīḷanakāle, tvaṁ bhattaṁ upaneyyāsī” ti.
while he is playing with his son, you can serve the food to the king.”

Sā evaṁ vatvā attano puttaṁ alaṅkatābharaṇaṁ maṇḍetvā,
Having said this and dressed up her son and decorated him with finery,

rañño ūrumhi nisīdāpesi.
she sat him on the king’s lap.

Rañño puttena saddhiṁ kīḷanakāle bhattakārako bhattaṁ upanāmesi.
While the king was playing with his son the food was served by the cook.

Rājā surāmadamatto pātiyaṁ maṁsaṁ adisvā:
The king, not seeing meat on the dish, being intoxicated with liquor,

“Maṁsaṁ kahan”-ti? pucchitvā:
asked: “Where is the meat?”

“Ajja, deva, uposathadivasaṁ māghātatāya,
He said: “Today, king, is a feast-day when killing is not allowed,

maṁsaṁ na laddhan”-ti vutte:
no meat is available.”

“Mayhaṁ maṁsaṁ nāma dullabhan”-ti? vatvā,
Having said: “Is meat so hard to find for me?”

ūrumhi nisinnassa piyaputtassa gīvaṁ vaṭṭetvā,
having wrung the neck of his dear son sitting on his lap,

jīvitakkhayaṁ pāpetvā,
bringing his life to destruction,

bhattakārakassa purato khipitvā:
and throwing (the corpse) in front of the cook,

“Vegena sampādetvā āharā” ti āha.
he said: “Quickly prepare and bring (the meat).”

Bhattakārako tathā akāsi, rājā puttamaṁsena bhattaṁ bhuñji.
The cook did so, and the king ate the food with his own son’s flesh.

Rañño bhayena
Out of fear of the king

eko pi kandituṁ vā rodituṁ vā kathetuṁ vā samattho nāma nāhosi.
there was no one able to wail, or cry, or speak out.

Rājā bhuñjitvā sayanapiṭṭhe niddaṁ upagantvā,
The king, having eaten, went to sleep on top of the bed,

paccūsakāle pabujjhitvā vigatamado:
and when he woke up before dawn being no longer drunk,

“Puttaṁ me ānethā” ti āha.
he said: “Bring me my son.”

Tasmiṁ kāle devī kandamānā pādamūle pati.
At that time the queen fell at his feet wailing.

“Kiṁ, bhadde” ti? ca vutte.
Having said: “Why (do you cry) madam?”

“Deva, hiyyo te puttaṁ māretvā,
She said: “King, yesterday, after killing your son,

puttamaṁsena bhattaṁ bhuttan”-ti āha.
you ate food with his flesh.”

Rājā puttasokena roditvā kanditvā:
The king having cried and wailed with grief for his son,

“Idaṁ me dukkhaṁ surāpānaṁ nissāya uppannan”-ti.
said: “This suffering has arisen for me because of liquor.”

Surāpāne dosaṁ disvā:
After seeing the fault in liquor,

“Ito paṭṭhāya yāva Arahattaṁ na pāpuṇāmi,
he said: “Beginning from now until I attain Arahatta,

tāva evarūpaṁ vināsakārakaṁ suraṁ nāma na pivissāmī” ti,
I will not drink liquor which causes such ruination,”

paṁsuṁ gahetvā mukhaṁ puñchitvā adhiṭṭhāsi.
and having taken dirt and wiped his mouth, he made this determination.

Tato paṭṭhāya majjaṁ nāma na piviṁ.
Beginning from then he did not drink any intoxicants.

Imam-atthaṁ sandhāya:
Referring to this fact,

“Matto ahaṁ, mahārājā” ti, imaṁ gātham-āha.
this verse: “When drunk, great king,” was spoken.

Kitavāso nāmahaṁ rāja, putto Paccekabodhi me
King, I was called Kitavāsa, my son broke an Independent

Pattaṁ bhinditvā, cavito; nisneho tassa kāraṇā ti.
Buddha’s bowl, and passed away; through that cause I became unattached.

Mahārāja, pubbe ahaṁ Bārāṇasiyaṁ yeva Kitavāso nāma rājā.
Great king, formerly I was a king of Benares called Kitavāsa.

Tassa me putto vijāyi.
To me a son was born.

Lakkhaṇapāṭhakā taṁ disvā:
Having seen him those who could read signs,

“Mahārāja, ayaṁ kumāro pānīyaṁ alabhitvā marissatī” ti āhaṁsu,
said: “Great king, this boy will die through not receiving water,”

Duṭṭhakumāro tissa nāmaṁ ahosi.
(so) he gave the name Duṭṭhakumāra to him.

So viññutaṁ patto oparajjaṁ kāresi.
When he had grown up he was given the viceroyalty.

Rājā kumāraṁ purato vā pacchato vā katvā vicari.
The king walked round putting his son to the front or behind.

Pānīyaṁ alabhitvā maraṇabhayena,
Fearing the death (of his son) through not receiving water,

cassa catūsu dvāresu antonagaresu ca tattha tattha pokkharaṇiyo kāresi,
he built lakes at the four gates and here and there inside the city,

catukkādīsu maṇḍape kāretvā pānīyacāṭiyo ṭhapāpesi.
and made pavillions at the crossroads and so on and set up water pots.

So ekadivase alaṅkatapaṭiyatto pāto va,
One day in the morning, being decorated with ornaments,

uyyānaṁ gacchanto antarāmagge Paccekabuddhaṁ passi.
while going to the garden he saw an Independent Buddha on the highway.

Mahājano pi Paccekabuddhaṁ disvā tam-eva vandati {2.195} pasaṁsati,
Having seen the Independent Buddha the many-folk worshipped and praised him,

añjaliñ-cassa paggaṇhāti.
and held up their hands in reverential salutation to him.

Kumāro cintesi:
The prince thought:

“Mādisena saddhiṁ gacchantā,
“While going along with one such as I,

imaṁ muṇḍakaṁ vandanti pasaṁsanti,
they worship and praise this shaveling,

añjaliñ-cassa paggaṇhantī” ti.
and hold up their hands in reverential salutation to him.”

So kupito hatthikkhandhato oruyha,
Angrily he dismounted from the elephant’s back,

Paccekabuddhaṁ upasaṅkamitvā:
and approached the Independent Buddha,

“Laddhaṁ te, samaṇa, bhattan”-ti? vatvā:
saying: “Ascetic, have you received your food?”

“Āma, kumārā” ti vutte.
“Yes, prince,” he said.

Tassa hatthato pattaṁ gahetvā bhūmiyaṁ pātetvā,
Taking the bowl from his hand he threw it on the floor,

saddhiṁ bhattena madditvā,
and trampled it together with the food,

pādappahārena cuṇṇavicuṇṇaṁ akāsi.
and crushed it to bits with a blow of his foot.

Paccekabuddho: “Naṭṭho vatāyaṁ satto” ti tassa mukhaṁ olokesi.
The Independent Buddha said: “This person is truly lost,” and stared into his face.

Kumāro: “Ahaṁ, samaṇa, Kitavāsarañño putto,
The prince said: “Ascetic, I am king Kitavāsa’s son,

nāmena Duṭṭhakumāro nāma.
called Duṭṭhakumāra by name.

Tvaṁ me kuddho, akkhīni ummīletvā, olokento kiṁ karissasī” ti āha.
Being angry at me, opening your eyes, and looking round, what will you do?”

Paccekabuddho chinnabhatto hutvā,
The Independent Buddha, having his food cut off,

vehāsaṁ abbhuggantvā,
ascending into the sky,

uttarahimavante Nandanamūlapabbhāram-eva gato.
went to Mount Nandamūla in the northern Himālaya.

Kumārassā pi taṅkhaṇañ-ñeva pāpakammaṁ paripacci.
At that very moment the prince’s wicked deed matured.

So: “Ḍayhāmi ḍayhāmī” ti samuggatasarīraḍāho tattheva pati.
Saying: “I am burning, burning,” fire emerged from his body and he fell down right there.

Tattha tattheva yattakaṁ pānīyaṁ,
Right there and then whatever water there was,

tattakaṁ pānīyaṁ sabbaṁ chijji, mātikā sussiṁsu,
all of that water was cut off, the water-courses dried up,

tattheva jīvitakkhayaṁ patvā avīcimhi nibbatti.
and reaching the destruction of his life he was reborn in the ceaseless hell.

Rājā taṁ pavattiṁ sutvā puttasokena abhibhūto cintesi:
The king heard what had happened and overcome with grief for his son, thought:

“Ayaṁ me soko piyavatthuto uppajji,
“This grief has arisen based on affection (for my son),

sace me sneho nābhavissa, soko na uppajjissa,
if there were no attachment, Sneho normally means love, affection, but here it means the kind of love that is attached to its object and therefore causes grief, so that here the translation attachment seems more appropriate. grief will not arise,

ito dāni me paṭṭhāya saviññāṇake vā aviññāṇake vā,
beginning from here on, whether with consciousness or without consciousness,

kismiñ-ci vatthusmiṁ sneho nāma mā uppajjatū” ti, adhiṭṭhāsi.
I will not let attachment arise based on anything,” he made this determination.

Tato paṭṭhāya sneho nāma natthi.
Beginning from then he had no attachment.

Taṁ sandhāya: “Kitavāso nāmāhan”-ti gātham-āha.
Referring to this the verse: “I was called Kitavāsa,” was spoken.

Tattha, putto paccekabodhi me Pattaṁ bhinditvā cavito ti,
In this connection, my son broke an Independently Awakened One’s bowl, and passed away,

mama putto Paccekabodhipattaṁ bhinditvā cavito, ti attho.
my son having broken the Independently Awakened One’s bowl, passed away, this is the meaning.

Nisneho tassa kāraṇā ti,
Through him I became unattached,

tadā uppannasnehavatthussa kāraṇā,
then from the basis of the arisen attachment,

ahaṁ nisneho jāto, ti attho.
I became unattached, this is the meaning.

Arako hutvā mettacittaṁ satta vassāni bhāvayiṁ,
As Araka I developed loving-kindness for seven years,

Satta kappe Brahmaloke, tasmā akkodhano ahan-ti.
(I spent) seven aeons in the Brahmā Realm, so am I without anger.

This is the meaning:

Ahaṁ, mahārāja, Arako nāma tāpaso hutvā,
Great king, I became an ascetic named Araka,

satta vassāni mettacittaṁ bhāvetvā,
and cultivated a heart of loving kindness for seven years,

satta saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe Brahmaloke vasiṁ,
for seven aeons of evolution and devolution I lived in the Brahmā Realm,

tasmā ahaṁ dīgharattaṁ mettābhāvanāya
so through developing loving-kindness for a long time

āciṇṇapariciṇṇattā akkodhano jāto ti.
by the performance of practice I became one without anger.