Ja 231 Upāhanajātaka
The Story about the Shoes

In the present Devadatta repudiates the Buddha and becomes his foe, leading to his own destruction. The Buddha tells a story of an elephant trainer and his pupil, and how the latter judged himself of the same worth as the former, until he was shown to have less skill in front of the king.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Jagatī
1. Yathā pi kītā purisassupāhanā
Just as when (someone), buying men’s shoes for

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Jagatī
Sukhassa atthāya, dukhaṁ udabbahe,
Ease and use, (so) suffering could be removed,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Jagatī
Ghammābhitattā thalasā papīḷitā, The pa- part of papīḷitā seems to be inserted m.c. as the form doesn’t occur elsewhere.
Oppressed by the scorching heat on the feet,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Jagatī
Tasseva pāde purisassa khādare.
They chafe at the feet of that person.

−⏑−⏑¦−,−⏑−¦−⏑−− Tuṭṭhubha
2. Evam-eva yo dukkulīno anariyo, The opening of both this line, and lines c & d are all sub-standard metrically.
So he of bad family, ignoble,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Jagatī
Tumhāka Cst: tammāka, which doesn’t make sense. vijjañ-ca sutañ-ca ādiya,
Stealing this science and learning of yours,

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Jagatī
Tam-eva so tattha sutena khādati,
Being consumed by his learning right there,

⏑⏑⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Jagatī
Anariyo vuccati pānadūpamo ti.
The ignoble one is like a bad shoe.

Tattha, {2.223} udabbahe ti udabbaheyya.
In this connection, could be removed means could be removed. Different forms of the optative.

Ghammābhitattā talasā papīḷitā ti,
Oppressed by the scorching heat on the feet,

ghammena abhitattā pādatalena ca pīḷitā.
oppressed by the scorching heat on the sole of the feet. Same words, but restated more clearly.

Tassevā ti,
Of that,

yena tā sukhatthāya kiṇitvā,
because of having been bought for ease,

pādesu paṭimukkā dukkaṭūpāhanā tasseva.
strapped on the feet they are the wrong shoes for that (person).

Khādare ti vaṇaṁ karontā, pāde khādanti.
They chafe means by causing a wound, they chafe the feet.

Dukkulīno ti dujjātiko akulaputto.
Of bad family means of bad birth, a son of a bad family.

Anariyo ti hirottappavajjito asappuriso.
Ignoble means being devoid of conscience and concern, a bad person.

Tumhāka vijjañ-ca sutañ-ca ādiyā ti,
Stealing this science and learning of yours,

ettha taṁ taṁ namati tumhākā ti vattabbe,
here it should be said he bows down to this and that of yours,

tumhākaṁ Cst, in line with its reading tammāka in the verse, reads here: Tammāka vijjañ-ca sutañ-ca ādiyā ti ettha taṁ taṁ manatī ti: “Tammo” ti vattabbe tammāko; and below tasmā tammākā I cannot make any sense of this. The readings adopted are based on PTS. taṁ taṁ sippaṁ āsevati parivattetī, ti attho,
he practices, employs this and that craft of yours, this is the meaning,

ācariyassetaṁ nāmaṁ, tasmā tumhākā ti,
this is actually your teacher’s, therefore yours is said,

gāthābandhasukhatthaṁ {2.224} panassa rassabhāvo kato.
but for the comfortable arrangement of the verse it is said in short form.

Vijjan-ti aṭṭhārasasu vijjāṭṭhānesu yaṁkiñci.
Science means whatever is in the eighteen branches of science. This is the four Vedas (g, Sāma, Yajur and Atharva), and their ancillaries: pronunciation (śikṣa), procedures (for the ritual) (kalpa), linguistics (vyākaraṇa), grammar (nirukti), metre (chandas) and astronomy (jyotiṣa). Then enquiry (mīmāṁsā), reasoning (nyāya), traditions (purāṇa), law (dharmaśāstra); and medicine (āyurveda), martial arts (dhanurveda), theatre (gandharvaveda) and governance (arthaśāstra).

Sutan-ti yaṁkiñci sutapariyatti.
Learning means whatever is scriptural study.

Ādiyā ti ādiyitvā.
Stealing means stealing. Different forms of the absolutive.

Tam-eva so tattha sutena khādatī ti,
Being consumed by his learning right there,

tam-evā ti attānam-eva.
his means (being) himself (consumed). There must be doubt about this interpretation, taṁ is not normally possessive.

So ti yo dukkulīno anariyo ācariyamhā vijjañ-ca sutañ-ca ādiyati, so.
He (untranslated) means whoever is of bad family, ignoble, having stolen this science and learning from the teacher, he.

Tattha sutena khādatī ti,
Being consumed by (his) learning right there,

tassa santike sutena so attānam-eva khādatī, ti attho.
he consumes himself by learning in his presence, this is the meaning.

Aṭṭhakathāyaṁ pana: “Teneva so tattha sutena khādatī” ti pi pāṭho.
But the commentary says: “Being consumed with that learning right there,” this is another reading.

Tassāpi so tena tattha sutena attānam-eva khādatī, ti ayam-eva attho.
Being consumed by his own learning right there, this is the meaning.

Anariyo vuccati pānadūpamo ti,
The ignoble one is like a bad shoe,

iti anariyo dupāhanūpamo dukkaṭūpāhanūpamo, vuccati.
thus the ignoble one is like a bad shoe, like a badly made shoe, is said.

Yathā hi dukkaṭūpāhanā purisaṁ khādanti,
Since a badly made shoe chafes a person,

evam-esa sutena khādanto attanā va attānaṁ khādati.
so when being consumed by learning he chafes himself by himself. The definition is playing on the various meanings of khādati: chew, bite, eat, chafe, devour and consume.

Atha vā pānāya duto ti pānadu, How the form pānadu arises I am unsure, PTS calls it a faulty reading, s.v. pānada in cpd. pānad’ ûpama at Ja.ii.223 is faulty. The meaning is “a badly made sandal,” and the reading should probably be (with variant reading & C.) “dupāhan’ ûpama, i.e. du(ḥ) + upāhanā. The C. explains as “dukkaupāhan’ ûpama.”
Or, pānadu means pained A meaning found in Sanskrit. by the shoe,

upāhanūpatāpitassa, upāhanāya khāditapādassetaṁ nāmaṁ.
having a painful shoe, this is known as the feet being hurt This meaning is established in Sanskrit, but rare in Pāḷi. by the sandal.

Tasmā yo so attānaṁ sutena khādati,
Therefore he who hurts himself by his learning,

so tena sutena khāditattā,
because of being hurt by that learning,

anariyo ti vuccati pānadūpamo,
is said to be ignoble like a bad shoe,

upāhanūpatāpitapādasadiso ti vuccatī, ti ayam-ettha attho.
like the foot that is hurt by a shoe is said, this is the meaning here.