Ja 272 Byagghajātaka
The Story about the Tiger

In the present Kokālika wants to bring the two chief disciples to his home town, but they refuse to go. The Buddha tells a story of a Tree Devatā who drove away a tiger and a lion because of the carnage they brought into the forest. But once gone, men entered and cut down all the trees for cultivation.

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
1. Yena mittena saṁsaggā, yogakkhemo vihiyyati,
Through association with a (bad) friend, security decreases,

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
Pubbevajjhābhavaṁ tassa rakkhe akkhī va paṇḍito.
The wise one should guard his predominance like (he should guard) his eyes.

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
2. Yena mittena saṁsaggā, yogakkhemo pavaḍḍhati,
Through association with a (good) friend, security increases,

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
Kareyyattasamaṁ vuttiṁ sabbakiccesu paṇḍito ti.
The wise one should do all his duties in life for one like himself.

Tattha, {2.357} yena mittena saṁsaggā ti,
In this connection, through association with a (bad) friend,

yena pāpamittena saddhiṁ saṁsaggahetu saṁsaggakāraṇā,
through reason of association, through cause of association, with an bad friend,

yena saddhiṁ dassanasaṁsaggo savanasaṁsaggo kāyasaṁsaggo,
together with that one who is associated with by sight, by hearing, by body,

samullapanasaṁsaggo paribhogasaṁsaggo ti:
by conversation, by enjoyment:

imassa pañcavidhassa saṁsaggassa katattā, ti attho.
through the fact of making association through (one of) these five ways, this is the meaning.

Yogakkhemo ti kāyacittasukhaṁ.
Security means bodily and mental happiness. Yogakhema is one of those difficult terms in Pāḷi that has a range of meanings that can be called upon by the commentators, but not by translators! Essentially it means safety, security, sanctuary; but it also means free from the yoke, free from bondage, and therefore, according to this commentary, happiness.

Tañ-hi dukkhayogato khemattā idha yogakkhemo, ti adhippetaṁ.
Through the fact of being secure from the yoke of suffering here, he has security, this is the intention.

Vihiyyatī ti parihāyati.
Decreases means deteriorates.

Pubbevajjhābhavaṁ tassa rakkhe akkhīva paṇḍito ti,
The wise one should guard his predominance like (he should guard) his eyes,

tassa pāpamittassa ajjhābhavaṁ tena abhibhavitabbaṁ,
the predominance of his evil friend should be overcome by him,

attano lābhayasajīvitaṁ yathā naṁ so na ajjhābhavati,
since his own gains, fame and life should not overcome him,

tathā paṭhamataram-eva attano akkhī viya paṇḍito puriso rakkheyya.
so first of all the wise man should guard himself like (he would) his own eyes.

Dutiyagāthāya, yenā ti yena kalyāṇamittena saha saṁsaggakāraṇā.
In the second verse, through means by association with reason with a spiritual friend.

Yogakkhemo pavaḍḍhatī ti kāyacittasukhaṁ vaḍḍhati.
His security increases means his bodily and mental happiness increases.

Kareyyattasamaṁ vuttin-ti,
Should do ... for one like himself, The meaning of attasama is one like oneself, or a very close friend.

tassa kalyāṇamittassa sabbakiccesu paṇḍito puriso –
the wise person, in all duties towards his spiritual friend –

yathā attano jīvitavuttiñ-ca upabhogaparibhogavuttiñ-ca karoti –
just like one does for his own livelihood and for his own profit and enjoyment –

evam-etaṁ sabbaṁ kareyya,
so should he do all of this,

adhikam-pi kareyya, hīnaṁ pana na kareyyā ti.
he should do even more, but he should not do less.

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
3. Etha byagghā nivattavho, paccupetha mahāvanaṁ,
Come, tigers, please turn back, return to the great wood, don’t cut the wood,

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑− Siloka pathyā
Mā vanaṁ chindi nibyagghaṁ, byagghā māhesu nibbanā ti.
Bereft of tigers, do not let there be tigers without a wood.

Tattha, byagghā ti ubho pi te byagghanāmenevālapantī āha.
In this connection, tigers, addressing both these tigers she called on them by name.

Nivattavho ti nivattatha.
Turn back means turn back. Nivattavho is the indicative middle form of the verb, used m.c. nivattatha is the active form.

Paccupetha mahāvanan-ti,
Return to the great wood,

taṁ mahāvanaṁ paccupetha puna, upagacchatha, ayam-eva vā pāṭho.
return to the great wood again, go back, this is an alternative reading. The commentator seems to be saying upagacchatha is an alternative reading to paccupetha, but if it was, then the metre of the verse would be spoiled.

Mā vanaṁ chindi nibyagghan-ti,
Don’t cut the wood bereft of tigers,

amhākaṁ vasanakavanasaṇḍaṁ,
our residential wooden thicket,

idāni tumhākaṁ abhāvena nibyagghaṁ, manussā mā chindiṁsu.
now because of your absence (this wood) is bereft of tigers, and men must not cut it.

Byagghā māhesu nibbanā ti,
Do not let there be tigers without a wood,

tumhādisā ca byaggharājāno attano vasanaṭṭhānā palāyitattā,
because the tiger-kings like you fled away from their places of residence,

nibbanā vasanaṭṭhānabhūtena, vanena virahitā mā ahesuṁ.
do not let them be without a wood, bereft of a wood, because that in truth is where they dwell.